IJEECM Journal of Electronics & Communication (IJEECM-JEC)

High Priority based Secure Transmission in Spectrum Sharing Relaying Networks with Multiple Antennas

Authors: Akkurada Roja, M S R N Naidu

Abstract: To implement spectrum sharing networks in practice, a number of challenging issues, including security, need to be addressed. On account of the open and dynamic features, spectrum sharing CR networks are vulnerable to various malicious attacks, making secure communications to be a difficult task. In the traditional networks, multiple antenna techniques, which can provide extra spatial degrees of freedom, have been exploited to enhance the security of data transmission. we investigate the secrecy performance of a multi-antenna spectrum sharing relaying network in the presence of an eavesdropper. To exploit the inherent benefits of multiple antenna techniques, MRC/ZFB scheme at the relay is used to improve the security of the considered system. Spectrum Sensing algorithm is introduced after ML equalizer. So it will identified the high priority channel quickly. By this processing we can increase the spectral efficiency is proposed. In doing so, we derive exact and simple asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability of spectrum sharing relaying wiretap channels with the consideration of both the maximum transmit power constraint and the interference temperature constraint.

Keywords: Barcode, data transfer, differential phase shift keying, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation.

Cooperative OFDM Communication with DQPSK

Authors: Javvadi Satya Naga Manikanta, Balakrishna Batta

Abstract: The idea of 2-D standardized tags is of extraordinary significance for use in remote information transmission between handheld electronic gadgets. In a regular setup, any document on a PDA, for instance, can be exchanged to a moment mobile phone through a progression of pictures on the LCD which are then caught and decoded through the camera of the second wireless. In this examination, another approach for information adjustment in 2-D standardized tags is presented, and its execution is assessed in contrast with other standard strategies for scanner tag regulation. In this new approach, orthogonal recurrence division multiplexing (OFDM) tweak is utilized together with differential stage move keying (DPSK) over contiguous recurrence space components. A particular point of this investigation is to build up a framework that is demonstrated tolerant to camera developments, picture obscure, and light spillage inside neighbouring pixels of a LCD. In this paper Differential Phase Shift Keying was joined on account of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing keeping the ultimate objective to control data stream into visual two dimensional institutionalized labels. It was exhibited that QPSK-OFDM direction has certifiable insufficiencies in the balance of camera LCD improvements where the time of each part changes tenaciously. On the other hand, development of a differential stage modulator before OFDM to manage the data stream into organize differences of close-by parts (DPSK-OFDM) causes the development effect to logically incapacitate in light of its unfaltering change from segment to segment, adding to a little deviation from the ideal stage in the got hail. It was watched that under relative LCD-camera developments that create screw up rates in plenitude of 30% in PAM and QPSK-OFDM, the proposed course of action of DPSK-OFDM will keep up an error rate under 8% which is basically correctable using goof revision coding.

Keywords: Barcode, data transfer, differential phase shift keying, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation

Cross-Layer Design for Downlink Multi-Hop Cloud Radio Access Networks with Network Coding

Authors: Konakalla Subrahmanyam, P V V Rajesh

Abstract: There are two fundamentally different front haul techniques in the downlink communication of cloud radio access network RAN the data sharing strategy and the compression based strategy. Under the former strategy, each users message is multicast from the central processor to all the serving remote radio heads RRHs over the front haul network, which then cooperatively serve the users through joint beam forming; while under the latter strategy, the user messages are first beam formed then quantized at the CP, and the compressed signal is uncast to the corresponding RRH, which then decompresses its received signal for wireless transmission. Previous works show that in general the compression based strategy outperforms the data-sharing strategy. This paper, on the other hand, points out that in a RAN model where the RRHs are connected to the CP via multi hop routers, data sharing can be superior to compression if the network coding technique is adopted for multicasting user messages to the cooperating RRHs, and the RRHs beam forming vectors, the user RRH association, and the network coding design over the front haul network are jointly optimized based on the techniques of sparse optimization and successive convex approximation. This is in comparison to the compression based strategy, where information is uncast over the front haul network by simple routing, and the RRHs compression noise covariance and beam forming vectors, as well as the routing strategy over the fronthaul network are jointly optimized based on the successive convex approximation technique.

Keywords: Cloud radio access network (C-RAN), cross layer design, data-sharing strategy, compression-based strategy, beam forming, network coding, routing, fronthaul constraints, sparse optimization, successive convex approximation.

Performance Analysis of Power Spectrum Efficiency under Interference Cancellation

Authors: Kosuru Padma, G.Phani kumar

Abstract: A distributed interference cancellation scheme for cellular networks is considered in which a subset of receivers forward their decoded messages to another subset of receivers. The messages can then be used to cancel interference with estimated cross-channel gains. A distributed power control algorithm is presented that harnesses the gain of interference cancellation and that takes into account channel estimation error. The algorithm is based on the exchange of interference prices, but in this case the local power updates are not concave due to nonlinear terms introduced by channel estimation errors. A partial cancellation scheme is then presented where the power updates are derived in closed form. We show that the algorithm converges to a local optimum of the weighted sum-rate maximization problem. Two methods for sorting users into the two groups that respectively forward and receive the decoded messages are presented. The first is sequential and is shown to converge to a local optimum. The second is a simple heuristic that is based on a stochastic geometric approach. Numerical results show that power control and adaptive partitioning of the users can add substantial gains to interference cancellation.

Keywords: Distributed power control, uplink channel, coordinated multi-point, multi-cell processing, distributed interference cancellation, fractional power control, stochastic geometry, channel estimation error, interference prices.

Pattern Matching based Iris Recognition System

Authors: Panchadarla jayalakshmi, Bhaghyasree manepalli, G.Phani Kumar

Abstract: Iris biometrics is widely recognized as being one of the most practical biometrics in use today. The iris of the human eye is the angular region between the pupil and sclera. The iris pattern consists of complex and distinctive ligaments, furrows, ridges, rings, corona, freckles and collarette. Also, the iris is relatively stable over the lifetime of a person starting from the eighth month of gestation and demonstrates high pattern variability, even for identical twins and between the left and right eye of the same person. These characteristics make the iris a very suitable candidate for biometric user authentication in smart phones. a novel liveness detection method that exploits the acquisition workflow for iris biometrics on smart phones using a hybrid visible (RGB)/near infra-red (NIR) sensor. This is able to capture both RGB and NIR images of the eye and iris region in synchronization.

Keywords: Smartphone, consumer biometrics, iris recognition, liveness.

Pattern Matching based Iris Recognition System

Authors: Panchadarla jayalakshmi, Bhaghyasree manepalli, G Phani Kumar

Abstract: Iris biometrics is widely recognized as being one of the most practical biometrics in use today. The iris of the human eye is the angular region between the pupil and sclera. The iris pattern consists of complex and distinctive ligaments, furrows, ridges, rings, corona, freckles and collarette. Also, the iris is relatively stable over the lifetime of a person starting from the eighth month of gestation and demonstrates high pattern variability, even for identical twins and between the left and right eye of the same person. These characteristics make the iris a very suitable candidate for biometric user authentication in smartphones. a novel liveness detection method that exploits the acquisition workflow for iris biometrics on smartphones using a hybrid visible (RGB)/near infra-red (NIR) sensor. This is able to capture both RGB and NIR images of the eye and iris region in synchronization.

Keywords: Smartphone, consumer biometrics, iris recognition, liveness.

Comparative analysis of QCA adders

Authors: K Roopa, M Surya prakash

Abstract: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel nanotechnology that gives an altogether higher computational speeds than conventional CMOS, in which polarization of electrons shows the digital transitions. This paper presents designing of adder circuits in light of quantum-cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology, which offers an approach to execute rationale and all interconnections with just a single homogeneous layer of cells. . The quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) approach represents one of the possible solutions in overcoming this physical limit, even though the design of logic modules in QCA is not always straightforward. QCA adders are basic building blocks for larger QCA computational units. Our work shown comparative analysis for for different parameters like area, power consumption of 128 bit QCA ripple-carry adder and 128 bit carry-look-ahead adders designed with mg gates. The proposed 128 Bit QCA adder is implemented on Xilinx ISE and designed using Verilog HDL.

Keywords: QCA-quantum cellular automata, mg gates, nano technology.

Fuzzy C – Means based Automatic Reference Color Selection of an Image

Authors: Sarika.Uma Maheswari, K.Harikadevi

Abstract: Here we propose a fuzzy c-means automatic reference color selection of an image for the adaptive mathematical morphology (MM) method, and is specifically designed for color image segmentation applications. Because of the main advantages of being simple, in the past decade, it has contributed to the growing popularity of binary and gray-scale MM processing. However, the MM process typically neglects the details of reference color determination. Applying other ordering methods, which select only black as the reference color for sorting pixels, result in the problem in which the scope of the distance measurement is not optimal. The proposed Fuzzy c-means algorithm is used for determining the ideal reference color for MM and color image segmentation application and can be used for cluster based color segmentation. Due to this segmentation rate will be comparatively higher.

Keywords: Adaptive mathematical morphology; Color image segmentation; Kernel density estimation; Reference color selection; Region growing; Region merging.

Area and Delay Optimized Arithmetic Architectures of VLSI for ACT Design

Authors: Aithi Vamsi Krishna, Niddana Prabha

Abstract: The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a widely-used and important signal processing tool employed in a plethora of applications. Typical fast algorithms for nearly-exact computation of DCT require floating point arithmetic, are multiplier intensive, and accumulate round-off errors. Recently proposed fast algorithm arithmetic cosine transform (ACT) calculates the DCT exactly using only additions and integer constant multiplications, with very low area complexity, for null mean input sequences. The ACT can also be computed non-exactly for any input sequence, with low area complexity and low power consumption, utilizing the novel architecture described. However, as a trade-off, the ACT algorithm requires 10 non-uniformly sampled data points to calculate the eight-point DCT. This requirement can easily be satisfied for applications dealing with spatial signals such as image sensors and biomedical sensor arrays, by placing sensor elements in a non-uniform grid. In this work, a hardware architecture for the computation of the null mean ACT is proposed, followed by a novel architecture that extend the ACT for non-null mean signals. All circuits are implemented and tested and synthesized using the Xilinx ISE14.7.

Keywords: DCT, ACT, EIGHT-POINT DCT, AFT

Reversible Implementation of Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) Interface with SRAM

Authors: M.Sowjanya, Yelithoti Sravana Kumar

Abstract: Ternary content addressable memory is a special type of memory which is used to search for logic 0, logic 1, and logic 'x. TCAM finds the application in various fields. The main application of TCAM is found in the Network Routers where searching operation is done using the Contents. The other applications of the TCAM are found in Intrusion Detect, image processing, Gene pattern searching bioinformatics. These types of memory are used in routers in order to perform the lookup table function in a single clock cycle. As the use of networks, typified by the Internet, has spread widely in recent years, attention has focused on TCAMs asa key device for increasing the speed of packet forwarding (packet data transfers) by networking equipment by enabling high-speed lookup of destinations, etc., for large volumes of information during packet data transfers. Reversible logic has gained its interest in recent years due to its ultra low power characteristics. The proposed concept is designed using the reversible logic gate. In Reversible logic gates, each and every computed information is stored, because of that there is no loss of data and loss of power. There are equal number of inputs and outputs in reversible gates and the information is reused in the circuit by avoiding the loss of information by not computing the information computed before. In the proposed method the Ternary CAM with SRAM interface is implemented using the Reversible Toffoli gate in place of Peres gate and the Ternary CAM is implemented for 4x4 TCAM array, which is capable of searching data of 4 bit wide and it has 16 individual cells of TCAM.

Keywords: TCAM, Garbage output, Quantum cost, Reversible logic, Content addressable memory, Power consumption
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